- Open Access
A review on robotic fish enabled by ionic polymer–metal composite artificial muscles
© The Author(s) 2017
- Received: 1 November 2017
- Accepted: 4 December 2017
- Published: 16 December 2017
A novel actuating material, which is lightweight, soft, and capable of generating large flapping motion under electrical stimuli, is highly desirable to build energy-efficient and maneuverable bio-inspired underwater robots. Ionic polymer–metal composites are important category of electroactive polymers, since they can generate large bending motions under low actuation voltages. IPMCs are ideal artificial muscles for small-scale and bio-inspired robots. This paper takes a system perspective to review the recent work on IPMC-enabled underwater robots, from modeling, fabrication, and bio-inspired design perspectives. First, a physics-based and control-oriented model of IPMC actuator will be reviewed. Second, a bio-inspired robotic fish propelled by IPMC caudal fin will be presented and a steady-state speed model of the fish will be demonstrated. Third, a novel fabrication process for 3D actuating membrane will be introduced and a bio-inspired robotic manta ray propelled by two IPMC pectoral fins will be demonstrated. Fourth, a 2D maneuverable robotic fish propelled by multiple IPMC fin will be presented. Last, advantages and challenges of using IPMC artificial muscles in bio-inspired robots will be concluded.
- Ionic polymer–metal composite
- Bio-inspired robotic fish
- Dynamic modeling
Species invasions, such as Asian carps invasion recently found in the Illinois River, have caused ecological problems for local species . To control the quantity of invasive species, habitat study plays an important role in figuring out an ecological effective way . To enable the study, autonomous, stealthy, and highly maneuverable underwater vehicles are highly desirable in monitoring of the invasive species. Traditional underwater vehicles, such as submarines, are driven by electric motors, which rely on a rotated propeller to generate propulsion. Rotation-based propulsion creates unfavorable acoustic noise, which draws attentions from underwater creatures and thus leads to unfaithful data for their habitat study. More stealthy and environmentally friendly propulsive approaches need to be investigated and adopted for the underwater vehicles in such applications.
After thousand years of evolution, underwater creatures, such as fish and rays, are extremely best swimmers which man-made underwater vehicles cannot compete with. In order to mimic the swimming behavior of biological fish, much effort has been spent on how propulsion is generated by the fish locomotion. For example, Lighthill  studied large-amplitude elongated-body theory of fish locomotion. Lauder studied kinematics and dynamics of fish fin . Through those studies, it was found that most of underwater creatures adopt flapping-based propulsion for fast and energy-efficient moving and highly maneuvering through water. Flapping-based propulsion systems have been studied for many years [5–7]. However, in most of cases, the propulsion systems for robotic fish are still driven by electrical motors, which need a power transmission to convert rotation to flapping. Most of power transmission systems are bulky, energy inefficient, and noisy, which are unsuitable for small-size and bio-inspired robots. To avoid using power transmission, a novel actuating material that can naturally generate flapping is greatly needed. It will enable us to design bio-inspired and stealthy robots for ecological underwater monitoring applications.
Electroactive polymers are emerging actuating materials that can generate large deformation under electrical stimuli [8–10]. EAPs win their nickname, artificial muscles, due to their similarities to the biological muscles in terms of achievable stress and strain. EAPs have different configurations and basically they can be divided into two categories: ionic EAPs and dielectric EAPs. Dielectric EAPs are driven by the electrostatic force applied to dielectric polymers, which can generate large contraction [10–12]. Dielectric EAPs require high actuation voltage (typically higher than 1 kV), which limits their applications in underwater bio-inspired robots. Ionic EAPs are driven by the ionic transportation-induced swelling effect, which typically only needs small actuation voltage (1 or 2 V) and can naturally generate bending motion. Ionic polymer–metal composites (IPMCs) are an important category of ionic EAPs due to their chemical stability under wet condition and built-in actuation and sensing capability [9, 13].
To achieve a desired actuation performance of IPMC for underwater applications, many researchers have been working on modeling and control of IPMCs. Chen et al.  developed a physics-based and control-oriented model for IPMC and then validated the model through designing and implementing a model-based H-infinity control. To accommodate the large system’s uncertainties, such as hydration level, many researchers have developed adaptive robust controls for IPMCs. For example, Anh et al.  developed a robust control using quantitative feedback technique (QFT) which identified the system’s characteristics using a pseudorandom binary signal (PRBS) and then a QFT controller was designed and implemented online based on the identified model. Kang et al.  developed H-infinity controls with and without loop shaping or μ-synthesis. Their results showed that the robust control techniques can significantly improve the IPMC performance against non-repeatability or parametric uncertainties in terms of the faster response and lower overshoot than the PID control, using lower actuation voltage. Moreover, Chen et al.  developed an adaptive control for IPMCs to compensate the hysteresis in IPMC. To avoid using bulky external sensors, many researchers have been focusing on developing a compact sensing scheme for IPMC. For example, Chen et al. developed an IPMC/PVDF sensory actuator and implemented a feedback control using integrated sensing feedback. Leang et al.  developed an integrated sensing scheme for IPMCs using strain gauges and then developed a tracking control of an IPMC in an underwater environment.
IPMC-enabled underwater robots have been investigated by many researchers. Guo et al.  developed ionic conductive polymer film (ICPF)-enabled robotic fish which can achieve 0.137 body length per second (BL/s) swimming speed. Laurent et al.  studied the efficiency of microrobot propelled by IPMC, which can achieve about 1.4% efficiency. Then researchers developed different types of underwater robots, such as robotic fish , robotic ray , robotic jellyfish , and robotic worm , for various applications. In this paper, a systems perspective will be taken to review the recent work on IPMC-enabled bio-inspired underwater robots, including (1) a physics-based and control-oriented modeling approach that can capture the intrinsic actuation dynamics of IPMC and the hydrodynamics of robotic fish; (2) a fabrication technology for creating IPMC actuating membranes capable of generating 3D kinematic motions; and (3) bio-inspired design of robotic fish and ray. Finally, discussions and conclusions will be presented at the end.
Although control of robotic fish powered by electrical motors has been well developed by many research groups [26–32], control of the robotic fish enabled by IPMC has rarely been studied based on our best knowledge. The possible reason might be lacking of a faithful and practical dynamic model of the robotic fish enabled by IPMC. Due to the complex actuation dynamics of IPMC and hydrodynamics of fish, it was a great challenge to get a physics-based control-oriented model. Two types of models have been developed, including a steady-state speed model  developed by Tan’s group at Michigan State University and a dynamic model  developed by Porfiri’s group at New York University. In this section, we will review the steady-state speed model  developed by Tan’s group. In this review, we will discuss Lighthill’s theory on elongated-body propulsion first. Then the IPMC beam dynamics in fluid will be discussed next, considering general force and moment inputs. This will be followed by the actuation model of IPMC caudal fin. Last, the model for computing the speed of IPMC-propelled robotic fish will be obtained by merging Lighthill’s theory and the hybrid tail dynamics. Most of the modeling work presented in this section was published in [14, 33].
Model of IPMC hybrid tail
The model combines the seemingly incompatible advantages of both the white-box models (capturing key physics) and the black-box models (amenable to control design). The proposed modeling approach provides an interpretation of the sophisticated physical processes involved in IPMC actuation from a systems perspective. The model development starts from the governing PDE [35, 36] that describes the charge redistribution dynamics under external electrical field, electrostatic interactions, ionic diffusion, and ionic migration along the thickness direction. The model incorporates the effect of distributed surface resistance, which is known to influence the actuation behavior of IPMCs . Moreover, by converting the original PDE into the Laplace domain, an exact solution is obtained, leading to a compact, analytical model in the form of infinite-dimensional transfer function. The model can be further reduced to low-order models, which again carry physical interpretations and are geometrically scalable.
Moment generated by IPMC
Beam dynamics in fluid
Hydrodynamic force on passive fin
Mode summation method to solve beam equation
Speed model of robotic fish
3D kinematic motions have been observed from many types of biological fins, including pectoral fin and caudal fin . To mimic the swimming behavior of fish, flapping only motion is not sufficient enough to generate high efficient propulsion and high maneuverability. Since IPMC can only generate bending motion, in this section, we present two different fabrication technologies that enable us to fabricate IPMC actuation membrane capable of generating 3D deformation. Comparison of these two approaches will be given based on the characterization results. Most of the work presented in this section was published in [41, 42].
Lithography-based fabrication process
Create an aluminum mask on Nafion with e-beam deposition, which covers the intended IPMC regions.
Etch Nafion with argon and oxygen plasmas to thin down the passive regions.
Remove the aluminum mask and place the sample in platinum salt solution to perform ion exchange. This will stiffen the sample and make the following steps feasible.
Pattern with photoresist (PR), where the targeted IPMC regions are exposed while the passive regions are protected.
Perform the second ion exchange and reduction to form platinum electrodes in active regions. To further improve the conductivity of the electrodes, 100-nm gold is sputtered on the sample surface.
Remove PR and lift off the gold on the passive areas. Soften the passive regions with HCl treatment (to undo the effect of step 3).
Cut the sample into a desired shape.
Assembly-based PDMS bonding process
The second fabrication process is assembly-based PDMS molding fabrication process to create an IPMC-based actuating membrane, capable of complex 3D deformations. The first step in the process is to synthesize the IPMC actuator. Many groups have developed different IPMC fabrication processes to accommodate various functions [43–47]. In , Chen et al. followed most of the fabrication procedure outlined in  but add a multiple platinum plating process that reduces the surface resistance of the electrodes to improve the actuation performance .
Three types of bio-inspired underwater robots have been developed in this research, including robotic fish propelled by a caudal fin, robotic manta ray propelled by two pectoral fins, and robotic fish propelled by multiple IPMC fins. The robotic fish was fabricated to verify the speed model described in “Physics-based control-oriented modeling of robotic fish propelled by IPMC caudal fin” section while the manta ray was built to validate the fabrication process for pectoral fin described in “Bio-inspired design of underwater robots” section. The robotic fish propelled by multiple IPMC fins was developed to validate both forward swimming and turning capabilities. Most of the work presented in this section was published in [33, 42, 48, 49]
Robotic fish propelled by caudal fin
Robotic manta propelled by pectoral fin
Robotic fish propelled by multiple IPMC fins
Turning tests were conducted to verify the steering capability of the pectoral fins. To make a left turn, the left pectoral fin was actuated with the same actuation signal applied to the caudal fin, while the right pectoral fin was kept inactive. The caudal fin provided the forward swimming direction, while the force generated by the left pectoral fin made the fish tail turn to the left.
The physics-based and control-oriented model of the robotic fish will offer a great help in optimal design of the caudal fin and real-time control of the fish. It incorporates the hydrodynamics of the fish and actuation dynamics of IPMC. However, it can only capture the propulsion generated by bending only motion. If a 3D kinematic motion is generated by a caudal fin or pectoral fin, the model needs to be modified to capture the thrust created by the fin which will be also three dimensional. The thrust can be calculated by integrating the hydrodynamic force acting on the fin. It will be a great challenge to capture the fluid-to-soft-membrane interaction since the boundary conditions of the fluid dynamics PDE equation are more complicated since the shape of the membrane changes with time. An approximation method must be found to simplify the 3D modeling of complex pectoral fin or caudal fin, which would be a future direction in this research.
The fabrication process for creating an IPMC that is capable of 3D kinematic motion follows two different approaches. The lithography-based approach is able to create meso- or microsize pectoral fin and it is suitable for batch production. However, the passive area of the fin is still Nafion membrane, which is not as stretchable as PDMS material. The twisting angle of 3D kinematic motion is constrained by the passive area even the active areas are controlled differently. The assembly-based approach solves the problem in the passive areas since a soft and stretchable PDMS can be selected in those areas. However, the process is non-monolithic and unsuitable for batch production. The process is also unable to create meso- or microsize pectoral fin. As a conclusion, each process has unique advantages and disadvantages. Choosing which process for making pectoral fin depends on the size of the robot and its application. The future direction of fabricating 3D deformable membrane would be 3D printing other soft materials and Nafion film into a seamless and arbitrary-shaped membrane which will consist of active areas and passive areas. This printing process would be either scaled up or scaled down, which could print mesoscale or microscale fish fins. The challenges would be 3D printing of two different soft materials in one platform.
Three types of bio-inspired underwater robot were reviewed in this paper. The robotic fish propelled by a caudal fin shows a reasonable good swimming forward performance (0.125 BL/s), while the robotic manta ray shows a slow swimming forward performance (0.053 BL/s). The 2D maneuverable robotic fish propelled by multiple IPMC fins showed some maneuvering capabilities (forward speed 0.067 BL/s and 2.5 degree/s), which are not very promising. The possible reasons might be that the pectoral fin and caudal fin were not optimally designed and the body was not optimally designed. However, using IPMC only in robotic fish or robotic rays might not be a good idea since IPMC cannot generate high-frequency flapping which is really needed for high-speed swimming or quick turning. The future direction of bio-inspired robots design using IPMC would be combining both IPMC and other fast responsive actuators, such as electrical motors, to achieve both high speed and high maneuvering capabilities. The challenges would be bio-inspired design of a hybrid fish tail and dynamic modeling and control of the robot propelled by such hybrid tail.
The author wants to thank NSF’s support for this review.
The author declares that he has no competing interests.
Availability of data and materials
This is a review paper. For all the data and material, please contact the original authors of the papers that are cited in this paper.
Ethics approval and consent to participate
Ethic approval was not sought for this paper as all the data extracted were from publicly available datasets; which were scrutinized by the data owner before release and publication. This review does not individual level data.
This review is funded by NSF under the grant CNS # 1446557.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
- Irons KS, Sass G, McClelland M, Stafford J. Reduced condition factor of two native fish species coincident with invasion of non-native Asian carps in the Illinois River, USA Is this evidence for competition and reduced fitness? J Fish Biol. 2007;71:258–73.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- DeGrandchamp KL, Garvey JE, Colombo RE. Movement and habitat selection by invasive Asian carps in a large river. Trans Am Fish Soc. 2008;137:45–56.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lighthill M. Large-amplitude elongated-body theory of fish locomotion. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1971;179:125–38.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lauder GV, Anderson EJ, Tangorra J, Madden PG. Fish biorobotics: kinematics and hydrodynamics of self-propulsion. J Exp Biol. 2007;210:2767–80.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Moored KW, Smith W, Hester J, Chang W, Bart-Smith H. Investigating the thrust production of a myliobatoid-inspired oscillating wing. Adv Sci Technol. 2008;58:25–30.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Moored K, Bart-Smith H. Investigation of clustered actuation in tensegrity structures. Int J Solids Struct. 2009;46:3272–81.View ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Morgansen KA, Triplett BI, Klein DJ. Geometric methods for modeling and control of free-swimming fin-actuated underwater vehicles. IEEE Trans Rob. 2007;23:1184–99.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bar-Cohen Y. Electroactive polymers as artificial muscles: capabilities, potentials and challenges. Robotics. 2000;2000:188–96.Google Scholar
- Shahinpoor M, Bar-Cohen Y, Simpson J, Smith J. Ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) as biomimetic sensors, actuators and artificial muscles—a review. Smart Mater Struct. 1998;7:R15.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Carpi F, De Rossi D, Kornbluh R, Pelrine RE, Sommer-Larsen P. Dielectric elastomers as electromechanical transducers: fundamentals, materials, devices, models and applications of an emerging electroactive polymer technology. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 2011.Google Scholar
- Pelrine R, Kornbluh R, Pei Q, Joseph J. High-speed electrically actuated elastomers with strain greater than 100%. Science. 2000;287:836–9.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Suo Z. Theory of dielectric elastomers. Acta Mech Solida Sin. 2010;23:549–78.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Shahinpoor M, Kim KJ. Ionic polymer-metal composites: I. Fundamentals. Smart Mater Struct. 2001;10:819.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chen Z, Tan X. A control-oriented and physics-based model for ionic polymer-metal composite actuators. IEEE/ASME Trans Mechatron. 2008;13:519–29.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nemat-Nasser S. Micromechanics of actuation of ionic polymer-metal composites. J Appl Phys. 2002;92:2899–915.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ahn KK, Truong DQ, Nam DNC, Yoon JI, Yokota S. Position control of ionic polymer metal composite actuator using quantitative feedback theory. Sens Actuators A. 2010;159:204–12.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kang S, Shin J, Kim SJ, Kim HJ, Kim YH. Robust control of ionic polymer–metal composites. Smart Mater Struct. 2007;16:2457.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chen X, Su C-Y. Adaptive control for ionic polymer-metal composite actuators. IEEE Trans Syst Man Cybern Syst. 2016;46:1468–77.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Leang KK, Shan Y, Song S, Kim KJ. Integrated sensing for IPMC actuators using strain gages for underwater applications. IEEE/ASME Trans Mechatron. 2012;17:345–55.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Guo S, Fukuda T, Kato N, Oguro K. Development of underwater microrobot using ICPF actuator. In: Proceedings of IEEE international conference on robotics and automation, 1998, p. 1829–34.Google Scholar
- Laurent G, Piat D. Efficiency of swimming microrobots using ionic polymer metal composite actuators. In: Proceedings of 2001 ICRA IEEE international conference on robotics and automation, 2001, p. 3914–3919.Google Scholar
- Tan X, Kim D, Usher N, Laboy D, Jackson J, Kapetanovic A, et al. An autonomous robotic fish for mobile sensing. In: 2006 IEEE/RSJ international conference on intelligent robots and systems, 2006, p. 5424–29.Google Scholar
- Punning A, Anton M, Kruusmaa M, Aabloo A. A biologically inspired ray-like underwater robot with electroactive polymer pectoral fins. In: International IEEE conference on mechatronics and robotics, 2004, p. 241–5.Google Scholar
- Yeom S-W, Oh I-K. A biomimetic jellyfish robot based on ionic polymer metal composite actuators. Smart Mater Struct. 2009;18:085002.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pak NN, Scapellato S, La Spina G, Pernorio G, Menciassi A, Dario P. Biomimetic design of a polychaete robot using IPMC actuator. In: The first IEEE/RAS-EMBS international conference on biomedical robotics and biomechatronics, BioRob 2006, p. 666–71.Google Scholar
- Liu J, Hu H, Gu D. A hybrid control architecture for autonomous robotic fish. In: 2006 IEEE/RSJ international conference on intelligent robots and systems, 2006, p. 312–17.Google Scholar
- Hu H, Liu J, Dukes I, Francis G. Design of 3D swim patterns for autonomous robotic fish. In: 2006 IEEE/RSJ international conference on intelligent robots and systems, 2006, p. 2406–11.Google Scholar
- Kopman V, Laut J, Polverino G, Porfiri M. Closed-loop control of zebrafish response using a bioinspired robotic-fish in a preference test. J R Soc Interface. 2013;10:20120540.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yu J, Liu L, Wang L, Tan M, Xu D. Turning control of a multilink biomimetic robotic fish. IEEE Trans Rob. 2008;24:201–6.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Low KH. Locomotion and depth control of robotic fish with modular undulating fins. Int J Autom Comput. 2006;3:348–57.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhao W, Hu Y, Zhang L, Wang L. Design and CPG-based control of biomimetic robotic fish. IET Control Theory Appl. 2009;3:281–93.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yu J, Tan M, Wang S, Chen E. “Development of a biomimetic robotic fish and its control algorithm. IEEE Trans Syst Man Cybern Part B (Cybern). 2004;34:1798–810.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chen Z, Shatara S, Tan X. Modeling of biomimetic robotic fish propelled by an ionic polymer–metal composite caudal fin. IEEE/ASME Trans Mechatron. 2010;15:448–59.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Aureli M, Kopman V, Porfiri M. Free-locomotion of underwater vehicles actuated by ionic polymer metal composites. IEEE/ASME Trans Mechatron. 2010;15:603–14.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Farinholt KM. Modeling and characterization of ionic polymer transducers for sensing and actuation. 2005.Google Scholar
- Nemat-Nasser S, Li JY. Electromechanical response of ionic polymer-metal composites. J Appl Phys. 2000;87:3321–31.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Shahinpoor M, Kim KJ. The effect of surface-electrode resistance on the performance of ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) artificial muscles. Smart Mater Struct. 2000;9:543.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Clough RW, Penzien J. Dynamics of structures. Walnut Creek: Computers & Structures Inc; 2003.MATHGoogle Scholar
- Sader JE. Frequency response of cantilever beams immersed in viscous fluids with applications to the atomic force microscope. J Appl Phys. 1998;84:64–76.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lu P, Lee K. An alternative derivation of dynamic admittance matrix of piezoelectric cantilever bimorph. J Sound Vib. 2003;266:723–35.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chen Z, Tan X. Monolithic fabrication of ionic polymer–metal composite actuators capable of complex deformation. Sens Actuators A. 2010;157:246–57.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chen Z, Um TI, Bart-Smith H. A novel fabrication of ionic polymer–metal composite membrane actuator capable of 3-dimensional kinematic motions. Sens Actuators A. 2011;168:131–9.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kim KJ, Shahinpoor M. Ionic polymer–metal composites: II. Manufacturing techniques. Smart Mater Struct. 2003;12:65.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kim KJ, Shahinpoor M. A novel method of manufacturing three-dimensional ionic polymer–metal composites (IPMCs) biomimetic sensors, actuators and artificial muscles. Polymer. 2002;43:797–802.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chung C-K, Fung P, Hong Y, Ju M-S, Lin C-CK, Wu T. A novel fabrication of ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMC) actuator with silver nano-powders. Sens Actuators B Chem. 2006;117:367–75.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kim SJ, Lee IT, Kim YH. Performance enhancement of IPMC actuator by plasma surface treatment. Smart Mater Struct. 2007;16:N6.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lee SJ, Han MJ, Kim SJ, Jho JY, Lee HY, Kim YH. A new fabrication method for IPMC actuators and application to artificial fingers. Smart Mater Struct. 2006;15:1217.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chen Z, Um TI, Bart-Smith H. Bio-inspired robotic manta ray powered by ionic polymer–metal composite artificial muscles. Int J Smart Nano Mater. 2012;3:296–308.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ye Z, Hou P, Abbaspour A, Chen Z. 2D maneuverable robotic fish propelled by multiple ionic polymer–metal composite artificial fins. Int J Intell Robot Appl. 2017;1:195–208.View ArticleGoogle Scholar