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Table 5 Gain values for different control schemes

From: Bacterial foraging-optimized PID control of a two-wheeled machine with a two-directional handling mechanism

Loop Output parameter Gain parameters PID + switching BFO + switching
Lower boundary Calculated gain Upper boundary
Loop 1 \(\theta\) Kp 1 80 −50 −1.733 50
Kd 1 9 −10 −0.0693 10
Ki 1 0.02 −0.1 0.0835 0.1
Loop 2 \(\delta_{\text{R}}\) Kp 2 80 −20 10.255 20
Kd 2 75 −20 0.016 20
Ki 2 0.05 −20 15.05 20
Loop 3 \(\delta_{\text{L}}\) Kp 3 80 −20 10.255 20
Kd 3 75 −20 0.016 20
Ki 3 0.05 −20 15.05 20
Loop 4 \(h_{1}\) Kp 4 8 −20 10.3279 20
Kd 4 10 −10 7.3378 10
Ki 4 0.01 −0.1 0.013 0.1
Loop 5 \(h_{2}\) Kp 5 27 −60 50.1502 60
Kd 5 32 −50 30.7237 50
Ki 5 0.05 −0.1 0.027 0.1